WMJ Vol 119: Comparison of Attitudes of Wisconsin Health Care Providers and Pharmacists Toward Vaccine Administration and Perceived Barriers
Objective: To measure the attitudes of pharmacists and other health care providers towards vaccine administration, overall acceptance of pharmacists as immunization providers, and perceived immunization barriers in Wisconsin.
Methods: The authors conducted a cross sectional study utilizing an online survey to assess the attitudes of pharmacists and other health care providers toward their role as immunization providers and perceived barriers to providing immunizations. The survey was distributed to between November 2018 and February 2019.
Results: Two hundred thirty-six pharmacists and 51 other health care providers completed the survey. Of the pharmacists who responded, 203 (86%) provided immunizations. Most respondents (97.9% of pharmacists and 90.2% of other health care providers) see vaccinations as a shared professional responsibility. Both pharmacists (82.6%) and other health care providers (79.6%) believe pharmacists have adequate training to administer vaccines to patients. Immunizing pharmacists identified 2 primary barriers to providing immunizations: patients refusing vaccines for financial reasons (55%) and patients not having insurance coverage for vaccines received in a pharmacy (55%). In contrast, the primary barrier identified by non-immunizing pharmacists is other responsibilities taking precedence over vaccinating (75%). Other health care providers identified determining whether their patients’ insurance will reimburse for a vaccine (52%) as their primary barrier toward providing immunizations.
Conclusion: These surveys provide a baseline measure of the attitudes of Wisconsin pharmacists and other health care providers toward immunization provision and offer opportunities for comparison. Our findings highlight barriers, such as insurance coverage for immunizations, that may prevent pharmacists from increasing vaccination rates in Wisconsin.
The target audience for this journal-based activity is healthcare providers caring for the people and communities of Wisconsin and beyond.
As a result of this journal-based activity, learners will be able to:
- Describe the perceptions of pharmacists and other members of the healthcare team about pharmacist-administered immunizations.
- List barriers to pharmacy-based immunizations as described by pharmacists that offer immunizations.
- List barriers to pharmacy-based immunizations as described by pharmacists that do not offer immunizations.
It is the policy of the University of Wisconsin–Madison ICEP that the faculty, authors, planners, and other persons who may influence content of this CE activity disclose all relevant financial relationships with commercial interests* in order to allow CE staff to identify and resolve any potential conflicts of interest. Faculty must also disclose any planned discussions of unlabeled/unapproved uses of drugs or devices during the educational activity. For this educational activity all conflicts of interests have been resolved and detailed disclosures are listed below:
|Name of Individual||Individual's Role in Activity|
Name of Commercial Interest &
|Terese Bailey, BS||Accreditation Specialist||No Relevant Financial Relationships to Disclose||No|
|Rebecca S. Bernstein, MD, MS||Author||Advancing a Healthier Wisconsin (AHW) (Grant)||No|
|David Dwyer, PhD, RN, NE-BC||Reviewer||University of Wisconsin-Madison (Employment); Eskenazi Health|
(Spouse/Partner: Employment); Mayo Clinic (Spouse/Partner: Employment);
Indiana University (Spouse/Partner: Grant)
|Patrick H. Ginn, MD||Reviewer||No Relevant Financial Relationships to Disclose||No|
|Jonathan Kempfert, PharmD||Reviewer||No Relevant Financial Relationships to Disclose||No|
|George E. MacKinnon III, PhD, MS, RPh||Author||Advancing a Healthier Wisconsin (AHW) (Grant)||No|
|Karen J. MacKinnon, BPharm, RPh||Author||No Relevant Financial Relationships to Disclose||No|
|Erica Martin, BS||Author||Advancing a Healthier Wisconsin (AHW) (Grant)||No|
|Cezarina Mindru, MD||Reviewer||No Relevant Financial Relationships to Disclose||No|
|Jessica Norman, PharmD||Reviewer||No Relevant Financial Relationships to Disclose||No|
|Inez Pabian, PharmD||Author||No Relevant Financial Relationships to Disclose||No|
|Roberta Pawlak, PhD, RN, NEA-BC||Reviewer||No Relevant Financial Relationships to Disclose||No|
|Lisa E. Rein, ScM||Author||No Relevant Financial Relationships to Disclose||No|
|Kenneth Schellhase, MD, MPH||Author||Advancing a Healthier Wisconsin (AHW) (Grant); Centene Corporation (Employee)||No|
|Sarina Schrager, MD, MS||Editor||No Relevant Financial Relationships to Disclose||No|
|Sarah E. Sorum, PharmD||Author||Advancing a Healthier Wisconsin (AHW) (Grant)||No|
* The ACCME defines a commercial interest as any entity producing, marketing, re-selling, or distributing health care goods or services consumed by, or used on, patients. The ACCME does not consider providers of clinical service directly to patients to be commercial interests.
|In support of improving patient care, this activity has been planned and implemented by the University of Wisconsin–Madison ICEP and the Wisconsin Medical Journal. The University of Wisconsin–Madison ICEP is jointly accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), and the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), to provide continuing education for the healthcare team.|
Credit Designation Statements
Accreditation Council of Pharmacy Education (ACPE)
The University of Wisconsin–Madison ICEP designates this knowledge-based activity for a maximum of 1.0 hours/0.1 CEUs of CPE credit. Credit can be earned by documented attendance and by successfully completing the activity and the evaluation. Credit will be provided to NABP CPE Monitor within 60 days after the activity completion.
Universal Activity Number (UAN) JA0000358-9999-20-130-H06-P
American Medical Association (AMA)
The University of Wisconsin–Madison ICEP designates this journal-based CE activity for a maximum of 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC)
The University of Wisconsin–Madison ICEP designates this journal-based CE activity for a maximum of 1.0 ANCC contact hours.
Iowa Board of Nursing accepts ANCC contact hours for nursing continuing education requirements.
Continuing Education Units
The University of Wisconsin–Madison ICEP, as a member of the University Professional & Continuing Education Association (UPCEA), authorizes this program for 0.1 continuing education units (CEUs) or 1 hour.
- 1.00 ACPE Contact Hours - Pharmacist
- 1.00 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™
- 1.00 ANCC Contact Hours
- 1.00 University of Wisconsin–Madison Continuing Education Hours
- 1.00 Approved for AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™
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