WMJ Vol 120 Issue 3: Rural Residence Predicts Lower Cardiac Mortality and Better Mental Health Outcomes
Introduction: Previous studies have found higher rates of heart disease and worse mental health outcomes among individuals residing in rural areas. To our knowledge, no research has used county-level data to measure the effect of “ruralness” (the degree to which a county is rural) on heart disease and mentally unhealthy days while controlling for other sociodemographic factors. This study analyzes the effect of ruralness on heart disease death rates and the average number of mentally unhealthy days on a county-level.
Methods: Linear regressions were performed using county-level data to analyze the effect of “Ruralness” on heart disease death rates and mental unhealthiness while controlling for confounding variables. Geographic analysis was also used.
Results: Higher rural-urban continuum codes predict lower rates of cardiac mortality (β = -.075 deaths per 100,000 people/continuum code, t = -4.36, P < .001) and fewer mentally unhealthy days (β = -.265 monthly mentally unhealthy days/continuum code, t = -16.45, P < .001).
Conclusion: Being from a rural area correlates with lower rates of heart disease death and mental unhealthiness after controlling for sociodemographic confounders. This adds nuance to the previously reported trend of heart disease being more prevalent in rural areas.
The target audience for this journal-based activity is healthcare providers caring for the people and communities of Wisconsin and beyond.
As a result of this journal-based activity, learners will be able to:
- Summarize what is known from the literature reviewed in the article about rural Americans vs urban Americans with respect to BMI, diet, and mental health.
- Explain the study findings about correlation between residing in a rural area and lower rates of cardiac mortality.
- Discuss the study findings about rural living predicting better mental health outcomes after controlling for sociodemographic confounders.
It is the policy of the University of Wisconsin–Madison Interprofessional Continuing Education Partnership (ICEP) to identify, mitigate and disclose all relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies* held by the speakers/presenters, authors, planners, and other persons who may influence content of this accredited continuing education (CE). In addition, speakers, presenters and authors must disclose any planned discussion of unlabeled/unapproved uses of drugs or devices during their presentation.
For this accredited continuing education activity all relevant financial relationships have been mitigated and detailed disclosures are listed below.
|Name of Individual||Individual's Role in Activity|
Disclosure of Financial Relationships
|Marianna Shershneva, MD, PhD||Accreditation Specialist||No relevant relationships with ineligible companies to disclose||No|
|Danyon Anderson, BA||Author||No relevant relationships with ineligible companies to disclose||No|
|Paul Beinhoff, BS||Author||No relevant relationships with ineligible companies to disclose||No|
|Leslie Ruffalo, PhD||Author||No relevant relationships with ineligible companies to disclose||No|
|Jennifer E. Lochner, MD||Reviewer||No relevant relationships with ineligible companies to disclose||No|
|Sarina Schrager, MD, MS||Editor||No relevant relationships with ineligible companies to disclose||No|
|Jensena Carlson, MD||Reviewer||No relevant relationships with ineligible companies to disclose||No|
|Laura Ozkan, PA||Reviewer||No relevant relationships with ineligible companies to disclose||No|
|Roberta Pawlak, PhD, RN, NEA-BC||Reviewer||No relevant relationships with ineligible companies to disclose||No|
*Ineligible companies are those whose primary business is producing, marketing, selling, re-selling, or distributing healthcare products used by or on, patients.
The ACCME does not consider providers of clinical services directly to patients to be ineligible companies.
|In support of improving patient care, this activity has been planned and implemented by the University of Wisconsin–Madison ICEP and the Wisconsin Medical Journal. The University of Wisconsin–Madison ICEP is jointly accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), and the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), to provide continuing education for the healthcare team.|
Credit Designation Statements
American Medical Association (AMA)
The University of Wisconsin–Madison ICEP designates this journal-based CE activity for a maximum of 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
Continuing Education Units
The University of Wisconsin–Madison ICEP, as a member of the University Professional & Continuing Education Association (UPCEA), authorizes this program for 0.1 continuing education units (CEUs) or 1 hour.
- 1.00 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™
- 1.00 University of Wisconsin–Madison Continuing Education Hours
- 1.00 Approved for AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™
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